Electric Resistance Welding (ERW)
Strip is unwound from coils and side-trimmed to control width and condition the edges for welding. The strip then passes through a series of contoured rolls which progressively cold-form it into a circular shape. The edges are forced together under pressure and welded by heating the steel to temperatures between 2200° F and 2600° F using copper contacts or coil induction.
Weld flash is removed from the the inside and outside surfaces of the newly-formed pipe, and the weld zone is heat treated to ensure homogeneity between the base metal and weld. The weld is subjected to in-line nondestructive testing, and the pipe then passes through a series of sizing rolls to attain its precise finished diameter. It is then straightened and cut to the desired finished length.
1. Line Pipes
API 5L PSL1/PSL 2 Line Pipe: Gr. B X42, X46, X52, X56, X60, X65, X70, X80/BM.X42M,X46M,X52M,X60M,X65M,X70,X80M
ISO 3183-1/2 Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries-Steel Pipe for Pipelines Transportation System-L240M,L290M,L320M,L360M,L390M,L415M,L450M,L485M,L555M,L690M
ISO 3183-3 Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries Steel Pipe for Pipelines Transportation System -L245NC / L245NCS,L290NC / L290NCS, L360NC / L360NCS, L290MC / L290MCS, L360MC / L360MCS, L415MC / L415MCS, L450MC / L450MCS, L485MC / L485MCS, L555MC
AS2885 Pipelines-Gas and liquid petroleum Part 1: Design and Construction
AS 1163 Steel Pipe
BS 3601-1 Carbon steel pipes and tubes with specified room temperature properties for pressure purposes
BS 3602-2 Specification for steel pipes and tubes for pressure purposes: carbon and carbon manganese steel with specified elevated temperature properties. Part 2: Submerged arc welded tubes
BS 6323 Seamless and welded steel tubes for automobile mechanical and general engineering purposes. Part 1: General requirements. Part 7: Specific requirements for submerged arc welded steel tube
CSA Z245.1 Steel Pipe
DIN 2470-1 Steel gas pipelines for permissible service pressures up to 16 bar
DIN 2470-2 Steel gas pipelines for permissible service pressures exceeding 16 bar
EN 10208-1:2009, Steel pipes for pipelines for combustible fluids - Technical delivery conditions - Part 1: Pipes of requirement class A.
EN 10208-2:2009, Steel pipes for pipelines for combustible fluids – Technical delivery conditions – Part 2: Pipes of requirement class B. L245MB,L290MB,L320MB,L360MB,L390MB,L415MB,L450MB, L485MB,L555MB
EN 10208-3 Non alloy and alloy fine grain steel tubes
EN 10217-1/3 Welded steel tubes for pressure purposes
EN10217-5 Welded Steel Tubes for Pressure Purposes-Technical Delivery Conditions-Part 5: Submerged Arc Welded Non-Alloy and Allow Steel Tubes with Specified Elevated Temperature Properties
EN 12007-3:2000, Gas supply systems - Pipelines for maximum operating pressure up to and including 16 bar - Part 3: Specific functional recommendations for steel.
EN ISO 21329:2004, Petroleum and natural gas industries - Pipeline transportation systems - Testing procedures for mechanical connections (ISO 21329:2004).
ISO 10543:1993, Seamless and hot-stretch-reduced welded steel tubes for pressure purposes - Full peripheral ultrasonic thickness testing.
ISO 21329:2004, Petroleum and natural gas industries - Pipeline transportation systems - Testing procedures for mechanical connections. - 1st edition.
EEMUA Publ 203:2004, Guide to the Application of ISO 3183 Parts 2 (1996) and 3 (1999) Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries - Steel Pipes for Pipelines - Technical Delivery Conditions.
NACE MR 0175/ISO 15156-2 Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries – Materials for Use in H2S Containing Environments in Oil and Gas Production. Part 2. Cracking resistant Carbon and Low Alloy Steels, and the Use of Cast Irons.
NACE TM 0177 Laboratory Testing of Metals for Resistance to Sulfide Stress Cracking in Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Environments
NACE TM 0284 Standard Test Method - Evaluation of Pipeline and Pressure Vessel Steels for Resistance to Hydrogen-Induced Cracking
ASM B31.11-2002 Slurry Transportation Piping Systems
DEP 220.127.116.11-Gen LINEPIPE FOR USE IN OIL AND GAS OPERATIONS UNDER NON-SOUR CONDITIONS(AMENDMENTS/SUPPLEMENTS TO API SPEC 5L)
DEP 18.104.22.168-Gen LINEPIPE FOR USE IN OIL AND GAS OPERATIONS UNDER SOUR CONDITIONS(AMENDMENTS/SUPPLEMENTS TO API SPEC 5L)
DEP 22.214.171.124-Gen Line pipe for non-critical service (amendments/supplements to ISO 3183-1)
DEP 126.96.36.199-Gen Linepipe for critical service (amendments/supplements to ISO 3183-3)
DEP 188.8.131.52-Gen Hydrostatic pressure testing of new pipelines
DEP 184.108.40.206-Gen Pipeline leak detection
DEP 220.127.116.11-Gen Pipeline Repairs (supplements to ANSI/ASME B31.4 and B31.8)
DEP 18.104.22.168-Gen Welding of pipelines and related facilities (amendments/supplements to ANSI/API STD 1104)
DEP 22.214.171.124-Gen Precommissioning of pipelines
GOST 10704-91 ERW longitudinally welded steel pipe
GOST 10705-80 Electrically welded tube for the constructionof trunk oil pipelines (426-1620mm)
GOST 20295:1985, Steel welded pipes for main gas-and-oil pipelines Specifications-09G2S,09GSF, 13HFA, 20FA, 13G1S-U, 17GS, 17G1S-У, 10G2FB, 10G2FBU, with strength index К-42 (H-50)– К-65(H-70).
GO R 52079:2003 Specification for electric-welded steel pipe intended for conveying gas/oil and oil products -К34, К38, К42, К48, К50, К52, К54, К55, К56, К60
GOST R ISO 10124:1999, Seamless and welded (except submerged arc-welded) steel tubes for pressure purposes - Ultrasonic testing for the detection of laminar imperfections.
GOST R ISO 10332:1999, Seamless and welded (except submerged arc-welded) steel tubes for pressure purposes. Ultrasonic testing for the verification of hydraulic leak-tightness.
GOST R ISO 10543:1999, Seamless and hot-stretch-reduced welded steel tubes for pressure purposes - Full peripheral ultrasonic thickness testing.
GOST R ISO 3183:2010, Petroleum and natural gas industries - Steel pipe for pipeline transportation systems. - 2nd edition.
IPS-M-PI-190 Material And Equipment Standard for Line Pipe
IGS-MS-PL-001 Specifications for Pipes, Electric Resistance Welded Type(ERW)
KOC-MP-018 KOC Standard for Seamless Pipe to API 5L
KOC-MP-019 KOC Standard for Submerged-Arc Welded (SAW) Pipe to API 5L
KOC-MS-001 Part 1 Kuwait Material Specification Line Pipe for Sour Service
NRF-001-Pemex-2007 Steel Piping for Hydrocarbon Collections and Transportation
RP 43-1 Onshore Transmission Pipelines to BS 8010
01-SAMSS-332/01-SAMSS-333 High frequency welded line pipe
01-SAMSS-035 and 01-SAMSS-038 Submerged-arc welded line pipe per
TOTAL GS EP PLR 202 Fabrication of longitudinally submerged arc welded pipes for
pipelines (sweet service)
NFA 49-211/ NFA 49-411 TUE 220,TUE 250,TUE 275,TUE 290,TUE 320,TUE 360,TUE 415,TUE 450
SANS 719-2008 ELECTRIC WELDED LOW CARBON STEEL PIPES FOR AQUEOUS FLUIDS (LARGE BORE)
2. Pipe for General Uses
ASTM A139 CHIMNEYS AND VENTILATION DUCTS for air and dust filtering systems, and smoke evacuation, PILLARS for ski chair-lifts and bridges
ASTM A513 - 08a Standard Specification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon and Alloy Steel Mechanical Tubing
ASTM A523 - 96(2005) Standard Specification for Plain End Seamless and Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe for High-Pressure Pipe-Type Cable Circuits
ASTM A589 / A589M - 06 Standard Specification for Seamless and Welded Carbon Steel Water-Well Pipe
ASTM A671 Electric Fusion Welded Steel Pipe for Atmospheric and Lower Temperature
ASTM A672 Electric-fusion-welded steel pipe for high-pressure service at moderate temperatures
ASTM A787 / A787M - 09 Standard Specification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Metallic-Coated Carbon Steel Mechanical Tubing
BS 2059 Part I & II Gr. 320, Gr. 360
BS 3601 Steel Pipe and Tubes for Pressure Proposes Carbon Steel: Ordinary Duties- Gr. 360,Gr. 430,
BS 7191 All Specification for Weldable Structure Steels for Fixed Offshore Structures
DIN 1615 Welded circular tubes of non-alloy steel without special quality requirements.
DIN 1626 Welded circular tubes of non-alloy steel with special quality requirements-St. 37.0,St44.0, St.52.0
DIN 1628 Welded circular tubes of non-alloy steel with very high quality requirements- St. 37.4
DIN 2458 Plain end welded steel tubes, dimensions and conventional masses per unit length- DIN 2470 Part 1 St. 37.0,St44.0, St.52.0
DIN 2460 Steel tubes for waterworks services
DIN 17120 Welded structural steel circular tubes for structural engineering purposes
DIN 17172 Steel pipes for pipelines for the transport of combustion fluids and gases--DIN 2470 Part II St. E210-7, E240-7,E290-7, St. E 320-7,St.E 360-7
DIN 17174 Welded circular steel tubes for low temperatures
DIN 17177 St. 37.8, St. 42.8
EN 10219-1, 2Cold formed welded structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain steels. Part 1: Technical delivery requirements. Part 2: Dimensions
EN 10220 Seamless and welded steel tubes.
EN 10224 Steel pipes, joints and fittings for the conveyance of aqueous liquids including potable water
EN 10296-1 Welded steel tubes for mechanical and general engineering purposes – TDR. Part 1: Non alloy and alloy steel tubes
JIS G 3444 STK 90,400,490,500,540 Carbon Steel Tubes for General Structural Purpose
KS D 3566 Carbon Steel Tubes for General Structural Purpose- STK 90,400,490,500,540
KS D 3583 Arc Welded Carbon Steel Pipe- SPW 400
SANS 719-2008 Electric welded low carbon steel pipes for aqueous fluids (large bore)
3. Structural Pipe
API 2B Specification for the Fabrication of Structural Steel Pipe
ASTM A53/53M-A/B Pipe, steel, black and hot-dipped, zinc-coated
ASTM A135 / A135M - 09 Standard Specification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe
ASTM A252 FOUNDATION PILES for soil consolidation, marine wharfs
ASTM A501-01 Standard Specification for Hot-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tubing
AS/NZS 1163 Structural Steel Hollow Sections- C250/L0, C350/L0,C450/L0
JIS G 3444 Carbon Steel Tubes for General Structural Purpose- STK 90,400,490,500,540
JIS A5525 Steel Pipe Pile
Water-gas GOST 3262-75 Ø 15-50 mm
Longitudinal GOST 10704-91, 10705-80 Ø 57-530 mm
Arterial GOST 20295-85 Ø 219-426 mm
GOST 20295-85, 10706-76 Ø 530-1420 mm
Galvanized GOST 3262-75, GOST 10704-91, 10705-80 Ø 15-159 mm
ASTM A523 Gr.A-B Electric resistance welded
ASTM A587 Electric resistance welded
4.Submarine (Offshore) Pipeline System
DNV OS-F101 Submarine Pipeline Systems-SAWL 245,SAWL290,SAWL 320,SAWL 360,SAWL 415,SAWL 450,SAWL 485,SAWL 555,
AS 2885-1 Pipelines-Gas and liquid petroleum Part 1: Design and Construction
2. Coating Specifications
2.1.1 External Epoxy Coating
API RP 5L2 Recommended Practice for Internal Coating of Line Pipe for Non-Corrosive Gas Transmission Service.
CAN/CSA-Z245.20 Standard for External Fusion Bond Epoxy Coating for Steel Pipe
AS 3862 Standard Specification for External Fusion-Bonded Epoxy Coating for Steel Pipes
AWWA C210 Standard for Liquid-Epoxy Coating Systems for the Interior and Exterior of Steel Water Pipelines
AWWA C213 Standard for Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coating for the Interior and Exterior of Steel Water Pipelines.
DEP 126.96.36.199-Gen TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION FOR EXTERNAL FUSION-BONDED EPOXY POWDER COATINGFOR LINE PIPE
NFA 49-710 Standard Specification for External FBE layered Coating
ISO 21809-2:2007, Petroleum and natural gas industries-External coatings for buried or submerged pipelines used in pipeline transportation systems-Part 2: Fusion-bonded epoxy coatings
NACE RP0394 – National Association of Corrosion Engineers Standard Recommended Practice, Application, Performance, and Quality Control of Plant Applied, Fusion Bonded Epoxy External Pipe Coating.
NACPA 12-78 – National Association of Pipe Coating Applicators External Application Procedure for Plant Applied fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE) to Steel Pipe.
SAES-H-002 Internal and External Coatings for Steel Pipelines and Piping
09-SAMSS-089 Shop-Applied External FBE Coating
09-SAMSS-091 Shop-Applied Internal FBE Coatings
2.1.2 Polyethylene Coating
CAN/CSA Z245.21 External Polyethylene Coating for Pipe
DIN 30670 Polyethylene Sheathing of Steel Tubes and of Steel Shaped Fittings
NFA 49-710 External Three-Layer Polyethylene Based Coating, Application by Extrusion
DNV-RP-F106 Factory Applied External Pipeline Coatings For Corrosion Control
AS/NZS 1518 External Extruded High-Density Polyethylene Coating System for Pipes
ISO 21809-1 Petroleum and natural gas industries -- External coatings for buried or submerged pipelines used in pipeline transportation systems - Part 1: Polyolefin coatings (3- layer PE and 3- layer PP)
ISO 21809-4:2009, Petroleum and natural gas industries -External coatings for buried or submerged pipelines used in pipeline transportation systems-Part 4: Polyethylene Coatings (2-layer PE)
DEP 188.8.131.52-Gen. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION FOR EXTERNAL POLYETHYLENE AND POLYPROPYLENE COATING FOR LINE PIPE
IPS-G-TP-335 Material and Construction Standard for Three Layer Polyethylene Coating System
NFA 49-710 External 3 layer Polyethylene Coating
PETROBRAS' ET-200.03 Engineering Specification ("Piping Materials for Production and Process Facilities") for using low density linear polyethylene in carbon steel piping, as to appendix 13 of such specification.
09-SAMSS-113 External Renovation Coating for Buried Pipelines and Piping (APCS-113)
UNI 9099-DIN 30670 Polyethylene Coating Applied by Extrusion
2.1.3 Polypropylene Coating
DIN30678 Polypropylene Sheathing of Steel Tubes and of Steel Shaped Fittings
EN 10286 Steel tubes and fittings for onshore and offshore pipelines –External three layer extruded polypropylene based coatings.
NFA 49-711 External Three-Layer Polypropylene Based Coating, Application by Extrusion
09-SAMSS-114 Shop-Applied Extruded, Three-Layer Polypropylene External Coatings for Line Pipe
2.1.4 Polyurethane Coating
AWWA C222-99: Polyurethane Coatings for the Interior and Exterior of Steel Water Pipe and Fittings
BS 5493- Polyurethane Coating
DIN 30677.2 polyurethane Insulation of the fittings
EN 10290- External Liquid Applied Polyurethane Coatings
2.1.5 Polyolefin Coating
AWWA C225-03: Fused Polyolefin Coating Systems for the Exterior of Steel Water Pipelines
AWWA C215-99: Extruded Polyolefin Coatings for the Exterior of Steel Water Pipelines
AWWA C216-00 Standard for Heat-Shrinkable Cross-Linked Polyolefin Coatings for the Exterior of Special Sections, Connections, and Fitting for the Steel Water Pipelines
AWWA C224 - 01: Two-layer Nylon-11 Based Polyamide Coating System for Interior and Exterior of Steel Water Pipe and Fittings
AWWA C225 - 03: Fused Polyolefin Coating Systems for the Exterior of Steel Water Pipelines
2.1.6 Tape Coating
ISO 21809-3:2008, Petroleum and natural gas industries-External coatings for buried or submerged pipelines used in pipeline transportation systems-Part 3: Field joint coatings
AWWA C209-00: Standard for Cold-Applied Tape Coatings for the Exterior of Special Sections, Connections, and Fittings for Steel Water Pipelines
AWWA C214-00 Standard for Tape Coating Systems for the Exterior of the Steel Water Pipelines
AWWA C217-99 Standard for Cold-Applied Petrolatum Tape and Petroleum Wax Tape Coatings for the Exterior for Special Sections, Connections, and Fittings for Buried/Submerged Steel Water Pipelines
AWWA C218-02 Standard for Coating the Exterior of Aboveground Steel Water Pipelines and Fittings
AWWA C224-01: Two-layer Nylon-11 Based Polyamide Coating System for Interior and Exterior of Steel Water Pipe and Fittings
EN 12068 - DIN 30672 STANDARD-POLYETHYLENE SELF ADHESIVE TAPES
2.1.7 Bitumen Coating
DIN 30673 Bitumen coatings and linings for steel pipes, fittings and vessels.
2.1.8 Coal-Tar Enamel Coating
AWWA C-203 Coal-Tar Protective Coatings and Linings for Steel Water Pipelines-Enamel and Tape-Hot-Applied
AWWA C205 Cement Mortar Protective Lining and Coating for Steel Water Pipe - 4 inch (100 mm) and Larger- Shop Applied
2.1.9 Concrete Weighted Coating
DNV-OS-F101 Submarine Pipeline System
ASTM C171 Specification for Sheet Material for Coating Concrete
BS EN 12620 Aggregates for Concrete
ISO 21809-5:2009, Petroleum and natural gas industries -External coatings for buried or submerged pipelines used in pipeline transportation systems - Part 5:External concrete coating.
ASTM C42 Standard Test Method for Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete
ASTM C642 Standard Test Method for Specific Gravity, Absorption and Voids in Hardened Concrete
ASTM C87 Standard Test Method for Effect of Impurities in Fine Aggregate on Strength of Mortar BS 1881 Methods of Testing Concrete
BS 3148 Methods of Test for Water for Making Concrete
BS 4482 Hard Drawn Mild Steel Wire for the Reinforcement of Concrete
BS 4483 Specification for Steel Fabric for the Reinforcement of Concrete
BS 4449 Specification for Carbon Steel Bars for Reinforcement of Concrete
ISO 4012 Determination of Compressive Strength of Test Specimen
2.1.10 Marine Coating
EN ISO 12944:1998 – Paints & Varnishes – Corrosion Protection of Steel Structures by protective paint system (parts 1 – 8)
ISO 20340:2009 Paints and varnishes – Performance requirements for protective paint systems for offshore and related structures
ISO 15741 Paints and varnishes-Friction-reduction coatings for the interior of on- and offshore pipelines for non-corrosive gases
2.1.11 Other specification
British Gas BGC/PS/CM1,
GAZ de France R 09
NACE RP 0181
NF A 49-706
2.2.1 Epoxy Lining
AWWA C210: Liquid-Epoxy Coating Systems for the Interior and Exterior of Steel Water Pipelines
API RP512 or NFA 49-709 Internal can be epoxy 80 microns
TS EN 10289
NFA 49708 Recommended Practice for Internal Coating of Line Pipe
2.2.2 Bitumen Lining
DIN 30673 Bitumen coatings and linings for steel pipes, fittings and vessels
UNI-ISO 5256/87 STANDARD-BITUMEN COATING
2.2.3 Cement Mortar Lining
AS/NZS 1516 Cement Mortar Lining of Pipelines In Situ
AWWA C203-02: Coal-Tar Protective Coatings & Linings for Steel Water Pipelines, Enamel & Tape, Hot-pap. (Incl. add. C203a-99)
AWWA C205-00: Cement-Mortar Protective Lining and Coating for Steel Water Pipe- 4 In. (100 mm) and Larger-Shop application
AWWA C602 Standard for Cement-Mortar Lining of Water Pipelines - 4 inch (100 mm) and Larger - In Place
2.2.4 Shop Cement Lined Piping
British Standard BS 534
British Petroleum GS 106-1
Shell DEP 184.108.40.206-Gen.
Saudi Aramco 01-SAMSS-005
KNPC ENG STD 87C1
API RP 10E
Pipe Coating Products
Fusion Bonded Epoxy – Fusion Bond Epoxy is a powder epoxy thermosetting coating applied for anticorrosion protection to steel pipelines. The pipe is first blast cleaned and heated. Then epoxy powder is spray applied by electrostatic guns to melt and form a uniform layer that hardens within a minute from application. Utilizing industry accepted materials supplied by manufacturers such as 3M, DuPont, and Valspar, the facility can apply FBE in a wide range of thickness to cost effectively meet any project specifications.
Fusion Bonded Epoxy with Abrasion Resistance Overcoating (FBE/ARO) – Utilizing two completely separate powder systems, the facility can produce FBE with an ARO at unprecedented processing speeds using industry accepted materials such as 3M 6352, DuPont 7-2610, and Lilly 2040.
Fusion Bonded Epoxy with High Temperature Resistant Overcoating – Utilizing two completely separate powder systems, the facility can produce FBE with a high operating temperature resistant overcoating such as DuPont’s Nap-Gard Gold and 3M’s 6258.
Fusion Bonded Epoxy with Zap-Wrap Overcoating – The facility is capable of processing line pipe with connections and of applying the Zap-Wrap abrasion resistance overcoating to the ends of each pipe.
Three Layer Polyethylene (3LPE)
To improve anticorrosion performance and adhesion, an additional layer of epoxy primer is sprayed onto pipe surfaces prior to the adhesive layer and Polyethylene top layer application. Three Layer Polyethylene is suitable for service temperatures from 60°C to 80°C (85°C peaks). Typical coating thickness is from 1-2 mm to 3-5 mm.
Three Layer Polypropylene (3LPP)
If a wider service temperature range and high stiffness is required, adhesive and top layers, applied over primer layer, are based on polypropylene instead of polyethylene. Three Layer Polypropylene is suitable for service temperatures up to 135 °C (140°C peaks). Typical coating thickness is from 1-2 mm to 3-5 mm.
Three Layer Polypropylene and Polyethylene
Three Layer applications involve a thermoplastic coating applied to steel pipelines as a form of anticorrosion protection. This mechanical resistance is appropriate when the risk of particularly severe coating damages exist. The Three Layer process involved several steps. First, the pipe surface is blast cleaned to remove any external residue from the mill or storage. It is then heated and sprayed with a Fusion Bond Epoxy (FBE) primer followed by the application of an adhesive copolymer and polyolefin polymers that are wrap extruded, one over the other.
Field applied products
3M: SK 134, SK6233, SK6352 Toughkote, SK 314, SK 323, SK 206N, SK 226N, SK 6251 DualKote SK-6171, SK 206P, SK226P,
3M Internal Coatings: Coupon EP2306HP
DuPont: 7-2500, 7-2501, 7-2502, 7-2508, 7-2514, 7-2803, 7-2504 Nap Gard Gold 7-2504, Nap Rock: 7-2610, 7-2617 FBE Powders
DuPont: Repair Kits; 7-1631, 7-1677, 7-1862, 7-1851
DuPont Internal Coatings: 7-0008, 7-0010, 7-0014, 7-0009SGR, 7-0009LGR, 7-2530, 7-2534, 7-2509
Akzo Nobel: FBE - Fusion Bond Epoxy
Internline 876 Seal Coat
Denso: 7200, 7900 High Service Temperature Coatings
Internal Liquid Epoxy: Powercrete Superflow