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EN 10219 S355JRH/S355J2H/E460,ASTM A252-3,TUBULAR STEEL TOWER,WIND POWER TOWER

  • EN 10219 S355JRH/S355J2H/E460,ASTM A252-3,TUBULAR STEEL TOWER,WIND POWER TOWER
  • EN 10219 S355JRH/S355J2H/E460,ASTM A252-3,TUBULAR STEEL TOWER,WIND POWER TOWER
  • EN 10219 S355JRH/S355J2H/E460,ASTM A252-3,TUBULAR STEEL TOWER,WIND POWER TOWER
  • EN 10219 S355JRH/S355J2H/E460,ASTM A252-3,TUBULAR STEEL TOWER,WIND POWER TOWER
  • EN 10219 S355JRH/S355J2H/E460,ASTM A252-3,TUBULAR STEEL TOWER,WIND POWER TOWER
  • EN 10219 S355JRH/S355J2H/E460,ASTM A252-3,TUBULAR STEEL TOWER,WIND POWER TOWER
  • EN 10219 S355JRH/S355J2H/E460,ASTM A252-3,TUBULAR STEEL TOWER,WIND POWER TOWER
  • EN 10219 S355JRH/S355J2H/E460,ASTM A252-3,TUBULAR STEEL TOWER,WIND POWER TOWER
  • EN 10219 S355JRH/S355J2H/E460,ASTM A252-3,TUBULAR STEEL TOWER,WIND POWER TOWER
  • EN 10219 S355JRH/S355J2H/E460,ASTM A252-3,TUBULAR STEEL TOWER,WIND POWER TOWER
  • EN 10219 S355JRH/S355J2H/E460,ASTM A252-3,TUBULAR STEEL TOWER,WIND POWER TOWER
  • EN 10219 S355JRH/S355J2H/E460,ASTM A252-3,TUBULAR STEEL TOWER,WIND POWER TOWER
  • EN 10219 S355JRH/S355J2H/E460,ASTM A252-3,TUBULAR STEEL TOWER,WIND POWER TOWER
  • EN 10219 S355JRH/S355J2H/E460,ASTM A252-3,TUBULAR STEEL TOWER,WIND POWER TOWER
  • EN 10219 S355JRH/S355J2H/E460,ASTM A252-3,TUBULAR STEEL TOWER,WIND POWER TOWER
  • EN 10219 S355JRH/S355J2H/E460,ASTM A252-3,TUBULAR STEEL TOWER,WIND POWER TOWER
  • WINDPOWER JACKET
  • EN 10219 S355JRH/S355J2H/E460,ASTM A252-3,TUBULAR STEEL TOWER,WIND POWER TOWER
  • EN 10219 S355JRH/S355J2H/E460,ASTM A252-3,TUBULAR STEEL TOWER,WIND POWER TOWER
  • WINDPOWER BLADES
Model No.︰-
Brand Name︰-
Country of Origin︰-
Unit Price︰US $ 925 / MT
Minimum Order︰20 MT
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Specifications︰
Tower and Foundations

Structure supporting the turbine’s nacelle and rotor. The height of the towers range from 40m to over 130m. The high altitude is an advantage, since wind speeds increase as altitude increases relative to the the ground. The tower structure has to be planned and modeled to support the weight and resist wind loads.

Tower Types:

Tubular Steel towers.

Concrete and precast concrete towers: The fist one is built in the site while the second one (precast) is prefabricated and transported in segments.

Lattice tower: Les less expensive, but technologically older and visually not appealing.

Rotor

Contains the blades and rotor hub that connects to internal components inside the turbines nacelle.

Blades

Structures that capture the wind. Its aerodynamic design is essential for efficiency. Wind turbine balde design is very similar to aircraft and both use the same physical principle of Bernouli. The blades typically are the most costly part of wind turbines.
Blade design is also essential to reduce the noise that may produce a wind turbine.
Blades are formed often from composite materials that provide strength and low weighty; they also may have a special coating to reduce wear .
Rotors with three blades have a better mass distribution and more stable rotation .


Aluminum blades are created by bolting sheets of aluminum together, while wooden blades are carved to form an aerodynamic propeller similar in cross-section to an airplane wing.
By far the greatest number of blades, however, are formed from fiberglass. The manufacture of fiberglass is a painstaking operation. First, a mold that is in two halves like a clam shell, yet shaped like a blade, is prepared. Next, a fiberglass-resin composite mixture is applied to the inner surfaces of the mold, which is then closed. The fiberglass mixture must then dry for several hours; while it does, an air-filled bladder within the mold helps the blade keep its shape. After the fiberglass is dry, the mold is then opened and the bladder is removed. Final preparation of the blade involves cleaning, sanding, sealing the two halves, and painting.
The blades are usually bolted onto the nacelle after it has been placed onto the tower. Because assembly is easier to accomplish on the ground, occasionally a three-pronged blade has two blades bolted onto the nacelle before it is lifted, and the third blade is bolted on after the nacelle is in place.

Betz Power Coefficient is the theoretical maximum power efficiency of any design of a wind turbine. This values is 59% or 0.59. However currently turbines have powers coefficients below this number, their range is between 0.32-0.49.
Swept Area: It is the circular area of rotating blades. The sweap area is a factor that also determines the power of a turbine. The kinetic energy available for conversion to electrical energy is calculated by the following equation:

Wind energy in Watts=(1/2) (air density) (swept area) (velocity)3 (Betz Power Coefficient)
Note velocity to he cube.

Rotor Hub

Maintains the blades in position.
If the turbine has a gearbox, the hub is connected to the low speed shaft of the gearbox. Turbines with Gearless systems, the hub transmits power directly to the generator.

Nacelle
Houses gearbox, shafts, generator and other electrical components of the wind turbine. Nacelle shape is determined by the manufacturer according to the arrangement of their components.


The fiberglass nacelle, like the tower, is manufactured off site in a factory. Unlike the tower, however, it is also put together in the factory. Its inner workings—main drive shaft, gearbox, and blade pitch and yaw controls—are assembled and then mounted onto a base frame. The nacelle is then bolted
The utility box for each wind turbine and the electrical communication system for the wind farm is installed simultaneously with the placement of the nacelle and blades. Cables run from the nacelle to the utility box and from the utility box to the remote control center.
The utility box for each wind turbine and the electrical communication system for the wind farm is installed simultaneously with the placement of the nacelle and blades. Cables run from the nacelle to the utility box and from the utility box to the remote control center.
around the equipment. At the site, the nacelle is lifted onto the completed tower and bolted into place.


Gearbox
Couples low rotor velocity with the generator`s high speed. Works by multiplying about 50 times (18-50 rpm to 1500 rpm) the input velocity the generator receives from the rotor.

There are wind turbines without gearbox (Gearless) as previously mentioned. Direct drive wind turbines can reduce friction between components and decreases wear and tear but at a higher cost.
The Gearbox reliability is critical, very good design and force calculation is required in order to avoid high maintenance costs. In this regard the gearbox supplier is critical.
Generator
Transforms mechanical to electrical energy. There are two types of generators synchronous and asynchronous.
Synchronous generators are connected directly to the grid and asynchronous require a rectifier and other components.
Yaw System
A wind vane in the nacelle detects wind direction. A motor moves the nacelle to achieve the rotor faces an almost optimum wind direction.

Power Control Systems
These are systems required to prevent mechanical overload and electrical surges . Turbines are not designed for extreme wind speeds. Prior a rate that exceeds its capacity is reached turbines have one of two systems to slow down the rotor speed : Pitch control and Stall control.

Pitch Control ( active system ) :
It consists of sensors that detect when power increases to a certain threshold produced by very strong wind. The rotor blades rotate on its own axis to change its angle (angle of attack). The angle of attack indicates the position in which the blades are facing the wind (similar to aircraft). Changing this angle decreases the rotor speed in order to avoid exceeding its maximum capacity. The energy generated under these conditions will be maintained to the name plate capacity. Pitch control provides more stable outputs at different wind veolocities.

Stall Control (passive system ) :
This system depends on the blades design. When the limit speed is exceeded blade longer blades rotate at high speed. This system, require less components. When the blades are stalling they produce more noise than a pitch control blade. Additionaly stall blades have a higher cross section area, which produces more drag and thus less power output at stalling speeds.
Stall control requires a very powerful braking system.
The trend is that pitch control is prefered over stall control.
Mechanical Brake System::

For wind turbines with pitch control system the mechanical brake is a backup meaure. The require power for thie brake is low. Wind turbines having a stall system must have a high power mechanical brake to absorb a huge amount of energy. In an emergency the break has to absorb all the energy generated by the rotor.


We build tubular steel towers up to a total height of 100 metres, and longer when required. Our standard section length is 35 metres; however our production facilities are geared to deliver variable section lengths when needed - both longer or shorter than our standard.

WE supply steel tube wind towers completely equipped with interior fittings – including platforms, inspection features and electrical installations.
Standard Met︰The monopile foundation is the most common foundation type presently installed in offshore wind farms

Wind Turbine Towers
The tower of the wind turbine carries the nacelle and the rotor.
Towers for large wind turbines may be either tubular steel towers, lattice towers, or concrete towers. Guyed tubular towers are only used for small wind turbines (battery chargers etc.)

Tubular Steel Towers
Most large wind turbines are delivered with tubular steel towers, which are manufactured in sections of 20-30 metres with flanges at either end, and bolted together on the site. The towers are conical (i.e. with their diameter increasing towards the base) in order to increase their strength and to save materials at the same time.

API 2B Specification for the Fabrication of Structural Steel Pipe
ASTM A252 Foudation Piles for soil consolidation, marine wharfs---Grade1, Grade 2, Grade 3
ASTM A500 Cold Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Steel Structural Tubing in Round and Shapes
EN 10219 Cold formed welded structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain steels--S235, S235JR, S235 G2H, S275, S275JR, S355JRH, S355J2H

2. Coating Specifications
2.1.External Coating
2.1.1 External Epoxy Coating
CAN/CSA-Z245.20 Standard for External Fusion Bond Epoxy Coating for Steel Pipe
AWWA C213 Standard for Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coating for the Interior and Exterior of Steel Water Pipelines.
NACE RP0394 – National Association of Corrosion Engineers Standard Recommended Practice, Application, Performance, and Quality Control of Plant Applied, Fusion Bonded Epoxy External Pipe Coating.
NACPA 12-78 – National Association of Pipe Coating Applicators External Application Procedure for Plant Applied fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE) to Steel Pipe.

EN ISO 12944:1998 – Paints & Varnishes – Corrosion Protection of Steel Structures by protective paint system (parts 1 – 8)
ISO 20340:2009 Paints and varnishes – Performance requirements for protective paint systems for offshore and related structures
ISO 15741 Paints and varnishes-Friction-reduction coatings for the interior of on- and offshore pipelines for non-corrosive gases


Surface Layer Description Product Name DRY FILM THICKNESS(μm)
External Coating Bottom Zinc-Rich Epoxy Sigmazinc102HS 50
Intermediary Epoxy Sigmacover410 170 280
Top Polyurethane Sigmadur188-RAL9016 60
Internal Coating Bottom Zinc-Rich Epoxy Sigmazinc102HS 50
Intermediary Epoxy Sigmacover410 110 200
Top Polyurethane Sigmadur188-RAL9016 40
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WINDPOWER JACKET
WINDPOWER JACKET



WINDPOWER BLADES
WINDPOWER BLADES

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