Alloy 200 is commercially pure (99.6%) wrought material nickel. It has good mechanical properties and excellent resistance to many corrosive environments. Other useful features of the alloy are its magnetic and magnetostrictive properties, high thermal and electrical conductivities, low gas content, and low vapor pressure.
The corrosion resistance of Alloy 200 makes it particularly useful for maintaining product purity in the handling of foods, synthetic fibers, and caustic alkalies; and also in structural applications where resistance to corrosion is a prime consideration.
Other applications include chemical shipping drums, electrical and electronic parts, aerospace and missile components, and rocket motor cases.
Alloy 400 is a solid solution alloy that may be hardened only by cold working. It has high strength and toughness over a wide temperature range and excellent resistance to many corrosive environments.
Alloy 400 is widely used in many fields, especially marine and chemical processing. Typical applications are valves and pumps; pump and propeller shafts; marine fixtures and fasteners; electrical and electronic components; springs; chemical processing equipment; gasoline and fresh water tanks; crude petroleum stills, process vessels, and piping; boiler feedwater heaters and other heat exchangers; and deaerating heaters.
Alloy 600 is a standard engineering material for applications that require resistance to corrosion and heat. The alloy also has excellent mechanical properties and presents the desirable combination of high strength and good workability.
The high nickel content gives the Alloy resistance to corrosion by many organic and inorganic compounds and also makes it virtually immune to chloride-ion stress-corrosion cracking. Chromium confers resistance to sulfur compounds and also provides resistance to oxidizing conditions at high temperatures or in corrosive solutions. The Alloy is not precipitation hardenable; it is hardened and strengthened only by cold work.
The versatility of Alloy 600 has led to its use in a variety of applications involving temperatures from cryogenic to above 2000°F.
The alloy is used extensively in the chemical industry for its strength and corrosion resistance. Applications include heaters, stills, bubble towers, and condensers for processing of fatting acids; evaporator tubes, tube sheets, and flaking trays for the manufacture of sodium sulfide; and equipment for handling abietic acid in the manufacture of paper pulp.
The alloy’s strength and oxidation resistance at high temperatures make it useful for many applications in the heat treating industry. It is used for retorts, muffles, roller hearths, and other furnace components and for heat-treating baskets and trays.
In the aeronautical field, alloy 600 is used for a variety of engine and airframe components, which must withstand high temperatures. Examples are lock wire, exhaust liners, and turbine seals.
The Alloy is a standard material of construction for nuclear reactors. It has excellent resistance to corrosion by high purity water, and no indication of chloride-ion stress-corrosion cracking in reactor water systems has been detected.
Alloy 625 is used for its high strength, excellent fabricability (including joining), and outstanding corrosion resistance. Service temperatures range from cryogenic to 1800°F.
The strength of Alloy 625 is derived from the stiffening effect of molybdenum and columbium on its nickel-chromium matrix; thus precipitation-hardening treatments are not required. This combination of elements also is responsible for superior resistance to a wide range of corrosive environments of unusual severity as well as to high-temperature effects such as oxidation and carburization.
The outstanding and versatile corrosion resistance of Alloy 625 under a wide range of temperatures and pressures is a primary reason for its wide acceptance in the chemical processing field. Because of its ease of fabrication, it is made into a variety of components for plant equipment. Its high strength enables it to be used, for example, in thinner-walled vessels or tubing than possible with other materials, thus improving heat transfer and saving weight. Some applications requiring the combination of strength and corrosion resistance offered by Inconel® Alloy 625 are bubble caps, tubing, reaction vessels, distillation columns, heat exchangers, transfer piping, and valves.
Alloy C-276 is known for its outstanding corrosion resistance in a wide range of severe media. The high nickel and molybdenum contents provide good corrosion resistance in reducing environments while chromium imparts resistance to oxidizing media. The molybdenum also aids resistance to localized corrosion such as pitting. The low carbon content minimizes carbide precipitation during welding to maintain resistance to corrosion (intergranular attack) in heat-affected zones of welded joints.
Alloy C-276 is widely used in the severest environments encountered in chemical processing, pollution control, pulp and paper production, industrial and municipal waste treatment, and recovery of “sour” natural gas. Applications in air pollution include stack liners, ducts, dampers, scrubbers, stack-gas reheaters, fans, and fan housings. In chemical processing, the Alloy is used for numerous components including heat exchangers, reaction vessels, evaporators, and transfer piping. In sour gas wells (those containing hydrogen sulfide), Alloy C-276 delivers a high level of performance in various downhole and surface components including tubing, coupling, and subsurface safety valves.
Alloy 800 is a widely used material of construction for equipment that must have high strength and resist oxidation, carburization, and other harmful effects of high-temperature exposure. (For high-temperature applications requiring optimum creep and rupture properties, Alloy 800H and 800HT are used).
The chromium in the Alloy imparts resistance to oxidation and corrosion. The high percentage of nickel maintains an austenitic structure so that the Alloy is ductile. the nickel content also contributes resistance to scaling, general corrosion, and stress-corrosion cracking. The iron content provides resistance to internal oxidation.
Alloy 800 is used in a variety of applications involving exposure to corrosive environments and high temperatures. It is used for heat-treating equipment such as baskets, trays, and fixtures. In chemical and petrochemical processing the Alloy is used for heat exchangers and other piping systems in nitric acid media especially where resistance to chloride stress-corrosion cracking is required. In nuclear power plants, it is used for steam-generator tubing. The Alloy is often used in domestic appliances for the sheathing of electric heating elements. In the production of paper pulp, digester liquid heaters are often made of Alloy 800. In petroleum processing, the Alloy is used for heat exchangers that air-cool the process stream.
Alloy 803 is an iron-nickel-chromium Alloy. The nickel and chromium contents are higher than those of Alloys 800H and 800HT. A cost-effective material that provides an exceptional level of high-temperature corrosion resistance in oxidation, sulfidation, and carburization environments.
Alloy 803 exhibits excellent stress-rupture strengths at elevated temperatures. These characteristics, along with high resistance to carburization and cyclic oxidation, make Alloy 803 the material of choice.
Alloy 803 is designed for use in petrochemical, chemical, and thermal processing applications including ID-finned pyrolysis tubing in high-severity ethylene furnaces.
Alloy 825 is a nickel-iron-chromium Alloy with additions of molybdenum, copper, and titanium. The alloy’s chemical composition is designed to provide exceptional resistance to many corrosive environments. The nickel content is sufficient for resistance to chloride-ion stress corrosion cracking. The nickel, in conjunction with the molybdenum and copper, also gives outstanding resistance to reducing environments such as those containing sulfuric and phosphoric acids. the molybdenum also aids resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion. The Alloy’s chromium content confers resistance to a variety of oxidizing substances such as nitric acid, nitrates, and oxidizing salts. The titanium addition serves, with an appropriate heat treatment, to stabilize the Alloy against sensitization to intergranular corrosion.
The resistance of Alloy 825 to general and localized corrosion under diverse conditions gives the Alloy broad usefulness. Applications include chemical processing, pollution control, oil and gas recovery, acid production, pickling operations, nuclear fuel reprocessing, and handling of radioactive wastes.
Alloy 20 is an austenitic nickel-iron-chromium Alloy with additions of copper and molybdenum.
The nickel content makes Alloy 20 resistant to chloride-ion stress-corrosion cracking. Copper and molybdenum give resistance to reducing environments. The molybdenum content also provides good resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion. The chromium gives resistance to oxidizing environments such as nitric acid. The addition of niobium reduces the effect of carbide precipitation during welding, thus increasing Alloy’s resistance to intergranular corrosion.
Alloy 20 has exceptional corrosion resistance in sulfuric acid environments and is used in a range of applications involving this acid. Other uses include the production of gasoline, solvents, explosives, inorganic and organic chemicals, pharmaceuticals, food, and synthetic materials. For these and other applications, Alloy 20 is readily fabricated to produce mixing tanks, heat exchangers, process piping, pickling equipment, pumps, valves, fasteners, and fittings.
Hot forming should be in the range 1400-2150°F (760- 1175°C). Incoloy® alloy 20 is normally used in the annealed condition. Annealing: 1800-1850°F (982- 1010°C)/ for a time commensurate with section size/AC.
Incoloy® alloy 20 is designated as UNS N08020. Standard product forms include pipe, tube, sheet, strip, plate, round bar, flat bar, forging stock, hexagon and wire. Rod, Bar, Wire and Forging Stock.
Plate, Sheet and Strip – ASTM A 240, ASTM A 480, ASTM B 463, ASTM B 906, ASME SA 240, ASME SA 480, ASME SB 463, ASME SB 906, ISO 6208, DIN 17750
Pipe and Tube – ASTM B 729, ASTM B 829, ASTM B 468, ASTM B 751, ASTM B 464, ASTM B 775, ASTM B 474, ASME SB 729, ASME SB 829, ASME SB 468, ASME SB 751, ASME SB 464, ASME SB 775, ASME SB 474, ISO 6207, DIN 77751
Other – DIN 17744, ASTM B 366, ASTM B 462, ASTM B 471, ASTM B 475, ASME SB 366, ASME SB-462, ASME SB 471, ASME SB 475
ASME SB163 Standard Specification for Seamless Nickel and Nickel Alloy Condenser and Heat-Exchanger Tubes
ASME SB165 Standard Specification for Nickel-Copper Alloy (UNS N04400)* Seamless Pipe and Tube
ASME SB167 Standard Specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloys, Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum Alloy (UNS N06617),and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten Alloy (UNS N06674) Seamless Pipe and Tube
ASME SB407 Standard Specification for Nickel-Iron-Chromium Alloy Seamless Pipe and Tube
ASME SB423 Standard Specification for Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Molybdenum-Copper Alloy (UNS N08825, N08221, and N06845) Seamless Pipe and Tube
ASME SB444 Standard Specification for Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Columbium Alloys (UNS N06625 and UNS N06852) and Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Silicon Alloy (UNS N06219) Pipe and Tube
ASME SB622 Standard Specification for Seamless Nickel and Nickel-Cobalt Alloy Pipe and Tube
ASME SB668 UNS N08028 Seamless Pipe and Tube
ASTM B673 UNS N08904 UNS N08925 and UNS N08926 Welded Pipe
ASTM B674 UNS N08904 UNS N08925 and UNS N08926 Welded Pipe
ASTM B677 UNS N08904 UNS N08925 and UNS N08926 Seamless Pipe and Tube
ASME SB690 Standard Specification for Iron-Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum Alloys (UNS N08366 and UNS N08367) Seamless Pipe and Tube
ASME SB729 Standard Specification for seamless UNS N08020, UNS N08026, and UNS N08024 nickel alloy pipe and Tube